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  5. Aeronautical Communications


1.Outline of the Aeronautical Communication

i. Air Traffic Control System

This is a system rendered between the Air Traffic Control Institutions and the aircraft to secure the safety and the mobility of aircraft by providing ground navigation or advice, information about aircraft and the airport weather condition.

ii. Air Control Communication System

This is a communication system that the airline companies use for determining aircraft position to secure the navigation of their proprietary aircrafts.

iii. Aircraft Telephone

This is an on-board public telephone service that aircraft passengers use to communicate.

Now, the satellite communication telephone service which went via the Inmarsat satellite.

iv. Radio Navigation System

This is a radio navigation system that the navigating aircraft uses to detect its position.

Furthermore, the development of a satellite navigation system utilizing GPS has been in progress.

v. Aircraft Landing System

This is a system used for navigating the aircraft by radio waves onto the airport for its landing in safety.

Furthermore, as a satellite navigation system by GPS has been more popular, the development of a system that utilizes it has been in progress.

vi. Aircraft-loaded Radio Equipment

There are different kinds of radio equipment loaded on the aircraft, while their two main targets are for navigation and communication.

Concept Diagram of the Aircraft Communication
Figure: Concept Diagram of Aircraft Communication

2.Aircraft Communication Type

Table: Aircraft Communication Type
Aircraft Communication Communication Air Traffic Control (ATC) –› VHF Cordless Telephone, HF Cordless Telephone
This is a communication rendered by the air traffic control institutions to the aircraft to secure the safety and mobility of the air traffic.
Aeronautical Operational Control (AOC) –› VHF Cordless Telephone, VHF Open Space Datalink, etc.
This is communication by the aircraft pilot for normal navigation and so forth.
Aeronautical Administrative Communications (AAC) –› VHF Open Space Datalink and so forth
This is business-use communication for airline companies, etc.
Navigation Radio Navigation –› VOR, DME, TACAN, NDB
This is communication for receiving response radio waves and catching information such as directions or distance by receiving ground radio waves or emitting request radio waves from onboard.
Satellite Navigation –› GPS
This is communication to receive radio wave from multiple artificial satellites and catch 3D position.
Surveillance Ground Surveillance –› ASR, SSR, ARSR, ORSR
This is communication to determine the position of the aircraft by the ground radar.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance –› Communicate the position data by GPS, etc. by Inmarsat, MTSAT, etc.
This is communication to attain navigation data automatically without any human intervention, based upon the navigation data from the aircraft.
Cooperative Information Systems –› Development in progress.
This is communication to attain 3D position data automatically without any human intervention by using multiple positioning satellites.

Reference: History of Aircraft Communication

   International Domestic
October, 1919 The "Treaty regarding Aircraft Law" is signed. The International Aircraft Committee (a permanent organization of the International Federation) is founded.   
1929    The Aircraft Communication Work starts. (The medium wave radio telegraph is set in use.)
1941    The operation of the radio beacons starts. (The medium wave radio beacon station)
1945    The operation, manufacturing, or research of the civil aircraft is banned by the GHQ memorandum.
June, 1950 The "Instrument Landing System (ILS)" is adopted as the ICAO International Standard. The "Domestic Transportation " is promulgated and the domestic aircraft transportation is re-started. (The JAL "The Jupiter" commemorates the first flight between Haneda and Fukuoka in October, 1951.)
July, 1959    The Air Route Control Right is transferred from the US Army to Japan.
1977 ARINC starts the VHF Open Space Datalink Service in the North American continent.   
1985 The Insarmat Treaty Amendment is adopted. (The Insarmat Satellite Communication Service is introduced into the aircraft.)   
April, 1990 December, 1990    The VHF Open Space Datalink Service starts. The Insarmat Satellite Communication Service starts.
Copyright(C)Telecommunications Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications All Rights Reserved.
Copyright(C)Telecommunications Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications All Rights Reserved.