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1.Purpose of Research and Development

With the rapid increase in the number of cellular phone base stations and other facilities employing radio spectrum and the growing prevalence of wireless communications, there is ever-greater demand for radio wave resources, and the volume of transmissions over cellular phone networks and so forth is expected to multiply by a factor of approximately 200 by 2020. The government of Japan, in charge of frequency allocation and reorganization, is faced with the need to alleviate the congested frequency allocation situation and meet new demand, launched the “Research and Development for Expansion of Radio Wave Resources” program in FY2005, and is engaged in R&D aimed at developing technology for efficient frequency use, promoting shared frequency use, and encouragement of a shift to use of higher frequencies.

2.Outline of Research and Development

R&D of the following technologies is being conducted in order to expand radio wave resources:
     (1) Technologies for efficient frequency use
       Technologies that allow efficient use of frequencies by compressing the frequency bands required for
     individual radio systems to narrow the currently allocated width

     (2) Technologies for promotion of shared frequency use
       Technologies that enable shared frequency use in frequency bands that are congested from overuse,
     without affecting existing radio systems

     (3) Technologies aimed at encouraging usage of higher frequencies
       In order to alleviate an impending situation where the use of frequencies below 6GHz is overly congested,
     technologies are used to shift radio systems currently operating below 6GHz to the relatively uncongested
     microwave band or other unused frequency bands (millimeter waveband).

3.List of Research and Development Projects

(1) Technology for efficient frequency use

R&D Subject FY2011
Budget (Unit:100
million
yen)
R&D of element technologies for intensive frequency use by mobile telecommunications system R&D of technology for coordinated control between multiple base stations in an environment with varying cell sizes
32.2
R&D of technology for improvement of reliability through dynamic use of heterogeneous radio systems
R&D of technology for radio resource control between multiple radio systems in the same frequency band
R&D of technology for efficient frequency use through coordinated control of heterogeneous radio systems
R&D of technology for terminals compatible with heterogeneous radio systems
R&D of element technologies aimed at realizing ultra-high speed mobile telecommunications systems
R&D of non-linear multi-user MIMO technology
R&D of technology for autonomous area design and operation
R&D of next-generation space communications technology contributing to efficient frequency use  R&D of technology for expanded satellite communications capacity through dynamic polarization / frequency control
2.7
R&D of next-generation wireless communications measurement technology  R&D of technology for increased stabilization of broadband / large-scale antennas and spectrum antennas
3.8
R&D of precision measurement technology for 100GHz ultra-wide band wireless signals

(2) Technology for promotion of shared frequency use

                                                       R&D Subject                                                   FY2011
Budget (Unit:100
million
yen)
R&D of dual-purpose terrestrial / satellite mobile phone systems technology
4.9
R&D of radio wave environment adaptability radar
0.8
R&D of intensive frequency-use technology aimed at realizing new broadband access in white spaces
8.1

(3) Technology aimed at encouraging a shift to use of higher frequencies

R&D Subject FY2011
Budget (Unit:100
million
yen)
R&D of fundamental technologies for promotion of shift of radio systems to as-yet-unused frequency bands R&D of mixed ultra-high speed broadband / high-frequency integrated circuits for millimeter waveband broadband communications
21.1
R&D of IC chip-level noise reduction technology for realization of high-speed, high-quality wireless communications
R&D of ultra-high speed short-range wireless transmission technology, etc.
R&D of technology for wireless transmission of dozens of gigabits via ultra-high frequency carrier waves
R&D related to increased sophistication of 79GHz-band radar systems

○ Assessment system for appropriate implementation of R&D projects

In order to maximize the transparency and practicality with which research and development projects are implemented, a Meeting for Assessment of R&D, Etc. Funded by Spectrum User Fees (hereinafter referred to as an “Assessment Meeting”) is convened to assess each R&D project as follows:

(1) Two-stage assessment consisting of assessment of technical aspects at the budget request stage, and
     comprehensive assessment based on the technical assessment results (Preliminary assessment)
   (2) Assessment of validity of basic plan for R&D implementation, in advance of public appeal for opinions
     (Basic plan assessment)
   (3) Two-stage assessment consisting of assessment of technical aspects at the budget request stage, and
     comprehensive assessment based on the technical assessment results, at project approval stage
     (Approval assessment)
   (4) During R&D project implementation stage, assessment of whether the project is proceeding in an
     efficient and appropriate manner (Ongoing assessment)
   (5) After completion of R&D project, assessment of whether the project produced satisfactory results
      (Final assessment)
   (6) For projects recognized as necessary in the final assessment, follow-up investigations of project
      status are conducted, and after a certain length of time following completion, assessment is
      made of the “ripple effect” of R&D results and status of utilization, etc. (Follow-up assessment)

Provision of assessment results as feedback promotes more efficient implementation of “Research and Development for Expansion of Radio Wave Resources” projects in the future.

The following are specific criteria used in each assessment.

<Preliminary assessment>
・Is the R&D in question necessary?
・Is the implementation period, etc. of the R&D project appropriate?
・Is there a clear grasp of the technical issues involved and the objectives of the project?
・Is there a budget appropriate to the R&D contents?
・With the above taken into account, is the project judged to be beneficial overall?

<Basic plan assessment>
・Does the project have relevance to effective use of radio frequencies?
・Does the R&D address valid technical issues, and is there correlation between the element technologies involved?
・Are attainment targets, etc. set appropriately?

<Approval assessment>
・Is the R&D method appropriate for achievement of the objective?
・Does the R&D method employ superior technology?
・Is the R&D implementation plan put together efficiently?
・Is there an appropriate R&D project structure in place?
・Are efforts being made toward development into other R&D areas, achievement of R&D results, and/or standardization?
・With the above taken into account, is the project judged to be beneficial overall?

<Ongoing assessment>
・Is R&D proceeding effectively according to the plan in place at the start of the fiscal year, and is it achieving results?
・Are implementation plans, project structures and budget plans for the next fiscal year appropriate for achievement of the desired final results?
・Is the project being conducted appropriately in terms of standardization, interconnectivity with other R&D, and intellectual property concerns?
・With the above taken into account, is the project judged to be beneficial overall?

<Final assessment>
・Have the targets and objectives determined during the preliminary assessment and the attainment objectives included in the basic plan been achieved?
・Was the project implementation structure appropriate? Were budgeted funds used effectively?
・Was the project appropriately conducted in terms of efforts toward standardization and practical application?
・With the above taken into account, is the project judged to be beneficial overall?

<Follow-up assessment>
・Were the R&D results beneficial in terms of alleviating spectrum congestion, such as through frequency redistribution?
・Was the project appropriate from the standpoint of economic and social “ripple effect” (efforts related to intellectual property concerns, standardization, practical application, etc.)?
・Was the project appropriate from the standpoint of papers published, academic conference presentations, etc.?
・With the above taken into account, is the project judged to be beneficial overall?

○ List of meeting members (in Japanese hiragana syllabary order, honorifics omitted)

    
Name Institution and position
Kiyomichi Araki Tokyo Institute of Technology Graduate School Professor
Michiko Kuroda Tokyo University of Technology Professor
Yasuo Suzuki Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Professor
Yoshiaki Nemoto Tohoku University Chairman
Masaharu Hata Okayama University Graduate School Professor
Mitsutoshi Hatori The University of Tokyo Professor Emeritus
Kazuhiko Honjo The University of Electro-Communications Professor
Tetsuya Miki The University of Electro-Communications Special Adviser to the President
(Note) Meeting members as of FY2010

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